Difference between revisions of "Mac OS X Commands"

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(Obtaining the password hashes on OS X 10.3, 10.4 and 10.5)
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Revision as of 21:19, 30 September 2008

Passwords

Obtaining the hashes

OS X 10.3 (Panther)

First find out the users' GUID:

niutil -readprop . /users/username generateduid

Next take that GUID and cat the hash file

cat /var/db/shadow/hash/GUID

The hashes in Panther are stored very plainly. The first 64 characters are the NTLM hash (first 32 NT, next 32 LM) and the last 40 characters are the SHA1 hash.

OS X 10.4 (Tiger)

The process for Tiger is very similar to Leopard. The only difference is that you need to use a utility called niutil instead of dscl to find out the GeneratedUID. It uses is as follows:

To obtain the GUID of a user in Tiger/Panther:

niutil -readprop . /users/username generateduid

After obtaining the GUID, see below for how to get the password hashes.

OS X 10.5 (Leopard)

To obtain the password hashes for a user in leopard, you need to first find out thier GeneratedUID. This can be accomplished with the following command (as any user):

dscl localhost -read /Search/Users/username | grep GeneratedUID | cut -c15-

What this does is read out all the user information using the Directory Service Command Line utility. In previous versions of OS X, this functionality was provided by the niutil program. Then we grep for just the GeneratedUID and cut the line from the 15th character until the end.

Now that we have the GUID we can find the hashes. They are located in a file at /var/db/shadow/hash/GUID. Note that the /var/db/shadow directory is only readable by the root user. This file can contain up to three different hashes of the users' password. It will always contain the salted SHA1 hash, which is used by OS X to authenticate during login, etc. If the user has previously turned on SMB file sharing, this file will also contain the easily crackable NTLM hash of the password as well. Also if the user has upgraded their OS X to 10.5 (Leopard) from 10.4 (Tiger) from 10.3 (Panther), this file will also contain a zero-salted SHA1 for Panther compatibility purposes, which is vulnerable to a SHA1 look-up/dictionary attack. Regardless, you can view all these simply by cat-ing the file. Here are the commands to just cut out certain hashes:

Salted SHA1 (first 8 characters are the salt)

cat /var/db/shadow/hash/GUID | cut -c105-152

Zero-Salted SHA1 (first 8 characters are the salt and will always be all zeros)

cat /var/db/shadow/hash/GUID | cut -c169-216

NTLM (first 32 characters are NT, next 32 are LM)

cat /var/db/shadow/hash/GUID | cut -c-64